Thursday, May 21, 2020

Assessment and Learners Essay - 1015 Words

4 Understand how to involve learners and others in assessment 4.1 Explain the importance of involving the learner and others in the assessment process Assessment is all about making judgements. A major argument for involving students in self and peer-assessment is that it helps them to develop the ability to make judgements, in particular about themselves and their work. This is an important life skill as well as an academic one. If an assessor wants to observe a specific piece of evidence but is unable to because maybe it hasn’t occurred in any methods of assessment; this is where it’s important for others to get involved for example the managers or the colleagues. The workers can motivate the learner when the assessor is not around.†¦show more content†¦Self-assessment is a natural progression and grows out of peer assessment. It allows the students to examine their own work and discover strengths and weaknesses for themselves. This can be carried out through reflective practice through a diary of learning or learning log that allows the student to see progression and reflect upon the journey. Its important to incorporate some aspect of self-assessment every day, if possible, in order for students to take responsibility and interest in their abilities. Another way of using self-assessment is by asking the students to give themselves a grade on the work that they have completed before handing in the work to the marking criteria set, or for student looks at their assignment and marks green for questions that they feels confident about, yellow for questions that they are unsure of and red for questions that will require help. 4.4 Explain how assessment arrangements can be adapted to meet the needs of individual learners Assessment arrangements can be adapted by allowing the learners to have an element of choice on how the criterion is assessed. This will allow the learners to feel included and means that the tutor is not offering an alternative or necessarily forcing the learner to disclose their lack of understanding or forcing adjustment. AnShow MoreRelatedEssay Assessment and Learner1780 Words   |  8 Pagesfunction of assessment in learning and development The function of assessment in learning and development is to provide a measure for the learners progress. Assessment is carried out through checks throughout the course, and at end of course. activities can help the learner to see their development whilst allowing the Assessor to give valuable feedback when appropriate. This is to measure the learners understanding of the subject set by the criteria. For example: Assessments provide clearRead MoreAssessment and Learner Essay2069 Words   |  9 PagesUNIT TITLE: 007 Principles of assessment in lifelong learning LEVEL 3 (3 credits) Learning OutcomesThe learner will: | Assessment CriteriaThe learner can: | Learner statement | 1. Understand types and methods of assessment used in lifelong learning | 1.1 | Explain types of assessment used in lifelong learning | Assessment can be Formative and should take place continually throughout my learner’s time to allow for development, by simply asking them questions and observing their actionsRead MoreAdult Learner Assessment3075 Words   |  13 PagesRunning head: ADULT LEARNER ASSESSMENT Adult Learner Assessment Enter Student Name Here Capella University August 26, 2012 ED7712 Classroom Assessment in Education All students are familiar with assessments. They have been assessed on various levels all through primary and secondary school, and if they attended school afterward they ve experienced assessments in postsecondary school as well. Why do we do assessments? Assessments are necessary - they notRead MoreAssessment of English Language Learners1489 Words   |  6 PagesAssessment of English Language Learners Alisha C. Green Grand Canyon University: ESL 533N Advanced Methodologies of Structured English Instruction December 12, 2012 Abstract Assessments are a critical tool in monitoring the progress of English language learners at all grade levels. The main purpose of assessments is to ensure students are receiving quality teaching instruction in accordance to academic and content standards. 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The practice allowed me to identify potential reinforcers, functions of behaviors, and strengths and challenges of learners’ skills. A skills assessment was conducted in SPE 569. This assignment _____ According to Cooper and colleagues, a preference assessment identifies potential reinforcers that can beRead MoreSelf-Assessment and Reflection of a Visual Learner1693 Words   |  7 PagesSelf-Assessment and Reflection of a Visual Learner Marcia Weaver COM/516 May 6, 2012 Denise Corso Abstract In this paper, I take the reader through my search and the processes I went through as a visual learner to decide on my choice of instruction, online or traditional. I identify my strengths and highlight how I have used them in this course; uncover my weaknesses, and present strategies on what to adjust to accommodate them. I also analyze the sources of my preconceived notions aboutRead MoreAssessment Methods For A Learner s Knowledge2396 Words   |  10 PagesAssessment Methods There are various assessment methods that can be used in different scenarios for different reasons. Observation Observation is one of the primary assessments and will be used often, as you should be observing the learners’ at all times ensuring that learning is taking place. You need to be observant of body language or actions such as raised hands in case a learner has missed something or has a question to ask. You also need to be observant to any hazards within your learningRead MoreLearner s Personal Leadership Assessment787 Words   |  4 Pagesfocus upon the learner’s personal leadership assessment, and on qualities that are inherent to leadership as a whole. The leadership skill assessment questionnaire produced an overall score of 26. According to the questionnaire, this was above average in all areas. However, the learner is able to identify areas of continued growth needed to achieve future career goals. Subsequently, these areas will be divulged in this paper as well. The learner discovered it will be advantageous to be moreRead MoreEnglish Language Learners For My Assessment1614 Words   |  7 PagesProfile The intended English language learners for my assessment would be primary aged students who are at the beginning level, according to WIDA. Primary aged students are students in kindergarten through grade 2, and WIDA describes students as â€Å"beginning† if they (a) understand and speak conversational and academic English with hesitancy and difficulty, (b) understand parts of lessons and simple directions, and (c) are at a pre-emergent or emergent level of reading and writing in English, significantly

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Importance Of Desensitization And Its Effect On Society

Each generation of society, it has had things that has been looked upon as wrong. People at certain times of history have different meanings and values for their actions. At some point people were desensitized to certain things, and a century later became sensitized or vice versa. What people are sensitive to tells a lot about society as a whole. The things that society accepts, doesn’t accept, has a biased too can be communicated through its portrayal. Desensitization is an element in which society advancement has created. The whole concept of desensitization comes from the culture in which we are exposed to. Desensitization not only explains why our culture is the way it is, but how far we are willing to go in the name of advancement. In Maggie Nelson’s â€Å"Great to watch†, she discusses how the content that media produce is violent. Karen Armstrong’s â€Å"Homo Religiousus† discusses different religious characteristics. In Daniel Gilbertâ€℠¢s â€Å"Immune to realty† we can find examples of desensitization and its effect on society. Desensitization is something that is exists in society as something neutral. Desensitization does not take sides on being beneficial or harmful, it is just the natural way of humanity. Desensitization is present by the media we are presented with, our negative thoughts, our tolerance, and our awareness. The vulgar content in media desensitizes people by creating a culture in which people imitate the destructive behaviors they observe. The norms that isShow MoreRelatedMedia Violence Essay1320 Words   |  6 PagesMedia Violence Media violence is one of the most debated public issues society faces today. Television screens are loaded with the glamorization of weapon carrying. Violence constitute as amusing and trivialized. Needless portrayals of interpersonal violence spread across the television screens like wild fire. Televisions spew the disturbing events such as children being assaulted, husbands inflicting domestic abuse on their wives and children succumbing to abuse by their parents. Scenes of betrayalRead MorePsychoanalytic Therapy : My Primary Theory874 Words   |  4 Pagesand the present determine one’s behavior. Humans are naturally motivated to find their place in society and to belong to a group. Many of the experiences that we have before we reach the age of six years old determine our personal characteristics of who we are as a person. From that age, our personal experiences and decisions shape our future. Our behavior is goal-oriented and stresses the importance of the choices we m ake. We must take responsibility for their actions and be purposeful in creatingRead MoreA Pleasant Demise in Shakespeares Hamlet1081 Words   |  4 PagesIn the modern era, society rejects anything related to death. Advertisements consistently supply the consumer with information about hair coloring and skin cream products to procedures like botulinum toxin injections, all in hopes to combat the effects of aging. New medications are constantly under development to keep the elderly and debilitated alive for numbered days as their health deteriorates. The subject of death draws strange glances and quiet discomfort if pursued in everyday conversationRead MoreAnalysis Of The Article Fahrenheit 451 1233 Words   |  5 Pages Katherine Moore Miss Keith English 11, Block 3 30 January 2017 The Evils of Technology in a Modern Society It is easy to tell that the obsession with technology has had major effects on people’s way of life. Political elections are polluted by voters that believe it is a game, Students with answers to questions shoved down their throat in the form of useless facts and a society in which individuality is dangerous. Ray Bradbury demonstrates these issues in his book Fahrenheit 451, by showingRead More Media?s Importance To Society, In Spite Of Adverse Effects Essay684 Words   |  3 Pages Media’s Importance to Society, In Spite of Adverse Effects nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;It has been said that the media is a bad influence on society. This is true in some cases, but we have to also add this to the statement; society also influences the media by what it chooses to promote or watch. Media is a very important part of society today. Even with its adverse effects, we could not live without it. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;To start with, it is only fair to ask why society thrives offRead MoreGlobal Warming Is Killing Humankind949 Words   |  4 PagesGlobal warming is killing humankind. In the essay â€Å"Obligation to Endure† by Rachel Carson, Carson explains that humankind has overstepped a boundary which could reconfigure the future of society. Carson argues with appeals, causes and effects, pleas to the audience, and repetitions to prove that there are problems with the use of chemicals in these environments; thus, it is the people’s job to realize and fix these issues. Carson has four main claims that solidify her argument toward a better regulatedRead MoreSummary And Analysis : The Nurture Effect By Anthony Biglan1207 Words   |  5 PagesIsabelle Segadelli The Nurture Effect Summary and Analysis Part 2 Summary This is a summary of Part 2 (chapters two through five) of The Nurture Effect by Anthony Biglan, PhD. Chapter two is titled ‘Nurturing Families.’ As one might imagine the chapter revolves around the topic of family. It discusses the importance of nurturing development during pregnancy and the first two years of the child’s life. The Nurse-Family Partnership program is talked about as a great solution for poor single teenageRead MoreThe Effect of Fantasy Fiction975 Words   |  4 PagesOur future here on this Earth is a bleak one. Our society is on a dangerous slope of promoting vanity at a rate that is ever more increasing, and thus resulting in stunted mental capacities. We are teaching the youth of today to disregard literature as a whole while we shove products and electronics down their throats. With the fast paced changes of social media, there comes a decrease in attention, which is crucial to critical thinking skills, analytical skills, and the time it takes to processRead MoreBlaming the Media for the Worldwide Increase in Violence Essay892 Words   |  4 PagesBlaming the Media for the Worldwide Increase in Violence The mass media are an increasingly accessible way for people to learn what is important in the world today and what is acceptable behaviour in this society. Media outlets include film, radio, print, music and so on; film being the most widely used medium. The media which is prevalent in every aspect of our lives, is the perfect instrument to instil ideas in the minds of the people, and the most susceptible of themRead MoreMass Medi A Positive Side And A Negative Side3367 Words   |  14 Pagestelevision shows such as Sesame Street have also proved to have a positive impact on children in another way compared to television that show the importance of family values: Education. â€Å"According to a soon-to-be published meta-analysis conducted by researchers at UW-Madison, watching international co-productions of â€Å"Sesame Street† has a positive effect on children’s learning and is an â€Å"enduring example of a scalable and effective early childhood educational intervention (cited in references).† These

Medicine and Mental Illness Free Essays

K272 TMA01 Consider the usefulness of a holistic model in explaining the experience of mental health. A holistic approach to mental illness means that the user’s physical, mental and spiritual health along with the user s state of mind, lifestyle and social factors will all be taken into consideration when analysing them. Holism refers to treating the whole person. We will write a custom essay sample on Medicine and Mental Illness or any similar topic only for you Order Now This means that holism feels disease doesn’t just affect the body, but also the mind and spirit as well. It’s said that the five dimensions are all inter related and so if one is c hanged then the other dimensions will all be impacted in some way or another. In a sense I feel that holism is practical as it explores several avenues in order to treat mental illness rather than the bio-medical approach which uses only one. The World Health Organisation (1946), define health in the following way ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity’. This definition of health supports both the medical and social models. In suggesting that wellbeing is the key to health the definition embraces the idea that in the treatment of illness all factors, social, mental and physical must be taken into account. If this definition is what professional’s base their treatment of mental health upon, then it could be seen that the medical and holistic models are intertwined and should in fact work in harmony. Yet one model holds dominance over the other. It is the medical model which is predominantly used in the treatment of mental health (Bentall, 2003) The Biomedical Model The bio medical model evolved as a response to diseases in the 19th century. German psychiatrists then used this model, based on their beliefs and not hard evidence, to categorize the symptoms of mental distress into distinct conditions, one of which was Schizophrenia (Bentall, 2003). The model suggests that mental health is an illness, characterised by specific symptoms that have a pathological base. This came about because research supported the notion that mental ill health was due to chemical imbalances, body dysfunction or injury (McCullough et al, 2005, Pritchard, 2006). However there is another suggestion that mental health is a hypothetical construct† (Boyle, 2002: 14). The fundamental focus of this model is that the individual is the source of their mental illness. Therefore the person can be treated and as with most illness the medical model will look at medication as the way forward (Beresford, 2005). Within this model the body is seen as a device rather than a person and as an appliance its functions will often need repair (Giddens, 2006). This thought process is damaging, it can encourage a poor relationship. When the ‘person’ becomes lost and is seen as a list of symptoms, they become stigmatised and labelled. This labelling can cause further mental distress and so more ‘symptoms’ may be seen (Thompson, 2006). The medical model sees mental illness as a brain malfunction, an imbalance, a set of symptoms, to restore mental health the medical experts will endeavour to adjust the imbalances with a variety of drugs. The use of drugs often does give a quick fix to some symptoms; however the use often creates a dependence, which may last until death (Harris et al, 2007). This dependence on drugs will give further credence to the medical model. Many researchers point out that this reliance on medication causes further mental distress, as the side effects can be many and enduring, adding further problems to those with a diagnosis of mental illness(Wallcraft, 2005,Usher et al, 2006). The Holistic Model As we know the holistic model is not the most popular model, it is however very important as it represents a way of thinking and understanding mental distress and gives a positive approach to working with and supporting people experiencing mental illness. Each person’s experience of mental illness is unique. Seedhouse (2000, pp 59-60) suggests that holism makes two main claims: that the whole cannot be fully understood separately and that they separate parts cannot be understood apart from the whole. Holism has many available methods including counselling, and congestive behaviour therapy. Although all of these aspects work together each promotes its own therapeutic power, which doesn’t really take a holistic perspective as it claims to. This can be very confusing and distressing for a user who has only ever encountered the biomedical model. A good example of this is (Taussig, 2002, p10) â€Å"the recovery from breakdowns has always been slow and painful, and each one has brought a different treatment ranging from C. B. T therapy to psychoanalysis. On each occasion when I called on the providers to help me out of the dark, each stood proudly alone protesting their own therapeutic power and efficacy†. Holism allows users to see how the body and mind are connected by letting them reflect. Reflection matters because it is continuous with practise. How you think about what you are doing affects how you do it, or whether you do it at all. It may direct your research or your whole attitude to people who do things differently, or indeed your whole life. (Blackburn 1999) However holistic approaches can bring the mind-body divide to the forefront as its been proven that reflecting on emotions can bring on physical distress such as raised heartbeat, headaches, and pains. Bringing supressed thoughts to the surface can also cause people to become dependent on such things as alcohol and drugs which need some biomedical intervention. Mind-body relations are always mutual and bidirectional-the body affects the mind and is affected by it. mind and body are so integrally related that, in practise], it makes little sense to refer to therapies as solely â€Å"mental† or† physical†, rather mind-body could perhaps be best regarded as an overall process that is not easily dissected into separate and distinct components or parts. (Seedhouse 2002, p55). . Whilst there are arguably opposing principles within the medical and holistic model it can be suggested that the diversity can be productive. There are aspects of both models that may help with the diagnoses of mental illness. The bio medical model through research will continue to strive for a specific, pathological base. Medicine aims to prevent mortality, with a high incidence of morbidity within the group of people diagnosed with mental illness, on-going research is a must (Muir-Cochrane 2006). The holistic model will strive to ensure, that the person with mental distress will have an individual programme tailored to their needs and therefore a selection of treatments may be the answer. The Hippocratic Oath which is fundamental in medicine suggests that interventions delivered from the medical profession of which psychiatry belongs ‘do no harm’ Sokol (2008). If the so called experts used the model to treat service users with a diagnoses mental illness in a way that caused no harm they would strive to ensure that when assessment was undertaken all aspects of the medical and holistic models of mental distress would be taken into account. The complex nature of mental illness would be identified and a more impartial framework of support could be supplied. It could look at solutions and ways of coping, rather than problems and illness. It would value the service user with mental distress, building a relationship and remembering that ‘mental illness’ it is not just an illness, a list of symptoms, there is a person present that needs to be respected. Perhaps the unification of these two models would enable the treatment for mental illness to be more people centred and unique. Service users could define what help was needed, and the balance of power would be with the expert. (Warren, 2007). References Beresford, P. (2005) Social Approaches to Madness and Distress: User Perspectives and User Knowledge, In J Tew (Ed), Social Perspectives in Mental Health: Developing Social Models to Understand and Work with Mental Distress, London: Jessica Kingsley. Bentall, R. P. (2003) Madness Explained: Psychosis and Human Nature, London: Penguin. Blackburn, (1999) Bowen, P. (2007) Blackstone’s Guide to the Mental Health Act 2007, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Boyle, M. (2002) Schizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion, London: Routledge. Giddens, (2006) Harris Et Al (2007) McCullogh Et Al (2005), Pritchard (2006) Muir-Cochrane (2006) Seedhouse (2000 P59-60) Seedhouse (2002 p55) Sokol (2008) Thompson (2006) Toussig (2002 p10) Usher Et Al (2006) Warren (2007) Word Count -1750 including references How to cite Medicine and Mental Illness, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Integrated Advertising America Alcohol Industry Case

Introduction Integrated Advertising refers to the promotion of a certain product using a variety of media. Since the inception of Internet and the subsequent generational change, there has been tremendous change in the manner in which companies place their advertisements. The use of mobile advertising is quite popular with studies showing that it will be the most preferred by 2016.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Integrated Advertising: America Alcohol Industry Case specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Television advertising is still quite popular though it is largely driven by prime times and major programs. This transformation is across the board. However, a look at alcohol advertising paints an even more interesting picture. This paper looks at the nature of alcohol advertising integration, its effectiveness, and the influence it has on the general populace (Mims, unpaged). Nature of Advertising Alcohol a dvertising is diverse in nature. Companies spend so much money to create awareness of alcohol. Most of this advertising is on broadcast media. This includes radio, television, and other news channel. In these broadcast media, maximum attention is directed towards particular prime times and certain programs. In America particularly, most of alcohol advertisements (over 90%) appear in sports programs. This is significant as it targets specific audiences. In Canada, for example, alcohol advertising features prominently when the popular game of hockey is underway. While majority of Canadians watch hockey games on television, a significant number attend live games. In these arenas, alcohol is massively advertised and estimations show that for every ten Canadians that watch these games, half drink alcohol related content while at it. In America, American soccer is a popular pastime. This is what culminates into super bowl Sundays. It is common knowledge that during these Sundays, advertis ers pay a lot of money to place their adverts. A check at these adverts indicates that majority of them are automobile related. Interestingly, the second largest category is alcohol ads. Hence, sports programming is a popular way to advertise alcohol in America. Pundits indicate that it accounts to over 90% of the total alcohol advertisements (Mims, unpaged). The second most popular programming that attracts alcohol advertising is prime time television. For example when broadcasting news, when analyzing hot political topics, or when a certain popular show is been broadcast in television. All these are times when alcohol advertising is broadcast. However, it is important to note that certain laws govern prime time adverting of alcohol.Advertising Looking for research paper on advertising? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, in United States certain laws indicate that when advertising alcohol, 70% of the audience should be of above alcohol drinking age. Additionally, the message should explicitly expose the dangers of consuming alcohol. The laws are similar in Canada with special interest in letting the public know the danger of using alcoholic contents. The laws are also aimed at protecting young people who the advertisers deliberately target. Alcohol advertisers advertise mostly on weekends. This is not by accident but design. During weekends, most young people are likely to engage in leisure activities, which are synonymous to drinking alcohol related products. This forms a very influential platform for advertisers. Research indicates that over 90% of alcohol is consumed on weekends. This rubber-stamps the strategic move to advertise on weekends (Ulrich and Song, 296). Influence on General Populace Over the years, research has indicated a general direct effect of alcohol advertisements to consumption. However, there is no direct relationship between increased alcohol consumption and advertising . The manner in which companies advertise, as noted above, indicate that the greatest target audience is the youth. While it is logical to conclude that advertisements on weekends may result in a specific target audience of young people, it is risky too. This is because most underage people are also free on weekends. Laws in both Canada and USA prohibit this. However, advertisers continue to do it albeit expertly avoiding these legal pitfalls (Mims, unpaged). Alcohol advertisements do not necessarily lead to higher consumption. Studies indicate that alcohol advertisements lead to brand loyalty and increase the market share of alcohol companies. It is crucial to note that these advertisements have the effect of bringing new alcohol consuming people on board (Ulrich and Song, 297). The most affected people are the youth. The advertising channels and the nature of advertising adopted by alcohol companies have the direct influence on youthful audience.Advertising We will write a cu stom research paper sample on Integrated Advertising: America Alcohol Industry Case specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The advertisers associate alcohol consumption to class and a high status in society. It is also common for alcohol to be associated to success. This is the reason they advertise on popular games. Hence, youthful audiences are carried away and are easily influenced by these adverts (Grube, unpaged). In addition to the above analysis, it is crucial to analyze the main advertising channels and the manner in which they are changing in the face of globalization and internet. Mobile advertising and internet related advertising is quickly gaining ground. Studies indicate that by 2016, mobile and internet advertising will surpass all traditional advertising channels combined. These traditional channels include radio, television, print-media, and personal marketing. Hence, companies are shifting towards social media sites such a s Face book, Twitter, Instagram and MySpace to advertise alcohol (Mims, unpaged). The flipside to these advertisements is the potential of reaching unintended audiences. There are no legal structures in America to govern the impact of these ads to audiences of lesser ages strictly. However, it is simple and relatively cheap to advertise on these channels (Grube, unpaged). Effectiveness of Advertising Alcohol advertising is quite popular the world over. Alcohol selling companies stake in millions in profits. As noted earlier, there is not statistically proven correlation between alcohol consumption and advertising. However, these companies continually increase their market share and promote brand loyalty. The advertisements mostly affect the youth. The currently trending internet and mobile advertising affects the youth most with over 90% of the youth directly exposed to raw adverts on alcohol. This is the same case with the nature of advertising adopted by these companies on other c hannels such as print media, radio, and television advertising. Estimates indicate that close to 90% of youthful audiences are exposed to televised alcohol advertising. In the year 2010 for example, light television viewers were exposed to over 400 alcohol advertisements annually. Heavy television viewers at the same time were exposed to over 800 television ads around the same time (Grube, unpaged).Advertising Looking for research paper on advertising? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Television advertisements are supposed to reach certain legally permitted audiences. This excludes children below the age of majority, which is 21, in America. However, this is not usually the case. With the increased internet usage, children below this age are continually been exposed to such ads. The USA and Canadian legal fraternity is grappling with ways to try to curb this by proposing laws that govern alcohol advertising. However, not much has been achieved since it is not possible to determine the age of a person who subscribes to social media sites or sites that are popular with such adverts. These sites include sports promotion sites. Additionally, while companies may try to limit advertisements to sports programming, the audiences that watch these sports are mixed in terms of age. Families attend them, which constitutes young children who are exposed (Ulrich and Song, 298). The above analysis indicates that the effectiveness of alcohol advertising is a critical area of dis cussion. There is no any right way to justify the wrong audiences who are exposed. The big question that many pundits ask is whether this scenario is by design or default. A critical analysis indicates that this is all by design. Alcohol companies are normally desperate to consolidate their market. They are also desperate to ensure loyalty to their brands. The best to do this is to expose youthful audiences to the coolness associated with alcohol consumption. This sticks in their heads and they grow knowing that alcohol is good. There is no direct way of admitting this. However, America’s legal system requires that alcohol advertisements be captioned with the danger of consuming too much. This may have the mitigating effect of discouraging alcohol consumption albeit at a minimal percentage. In conclusion, alcohol advertisements have both positive and negative effects. However, while positive effects can be readily quantified, the negative ones have to be carefully deduced fro m the effect it has on society. In America, at least 60% of people consume alcohol related content (Ulrich and Song, 297). Textual and Image Advertising Analysis Jim Fowles Fowles says that an advert has appeals from the following dimensions. That is sex, affiliation, dominance, autonomy among others. An effective ad appeals to the person reading the advert from each dimension. In the American culture, for example, everyone reveres winning and winners. Kids learn from their parents how to win in life and among peers. Hence, an ad that appeals to this characteristic is a direct influence to a majority of these people (Ulrich and Song, 297). In the American and almost every culture in the world, men must have a certain appeal that borders on dominance to win the hearts of women. Advertisers use this fact and Fowles is an advocate. He is capable of protection of the family and his woman. He also stands out among his peers. This means that he is the man every woman would go for. Therefo re, an advert should have a direct psychological connection with majority of women. This does not mean they will use alcohol. However, it meets the whole intention of advertising, which is attention. The other factor that Fowles uses to judge a good advert is autonomy. This stands out quite well in many alcohol adverts. However, an ad’s influence should cut across the board. It should not influence the targeted audience only. This is the true nature of advertising. Although the target may be a certain group, an advert should strive to influence a large number of people. This is because in marketing the larger the pool the greater the likelihood of making a sale. Courtland Bovee While Jim Fowles analyzes the use of image in advertising, Courtland Bovee analyzes the use of text. The textual components of an advert should meet and exceed the expectations of the target group. The first textual component is the heading/headlines and subheadings. Textual advertisements are appealin g to people who take time to read them. In the above case, most of the people are not patient. This group includes teenagers, men and people who are starting to make it in life. Hence, psychologically, they do not want things that might appear as disturbances (Ulrich and Song, 296). In using textual ads, Bovee offers some dos and don’ts. For example, it is suicidal to use commonly used phrases or clichà ©s. This dilutes the message of an advert. He advises that the text be bold enough to meet the eyes of the reader. He also says it is important to use short and easy-to-remember phrases. He refers to them as catchy and appealing to the eye (Young, 50). Conclusion Integrated advertising is quite popular currently. Many organizations prefer it as it brings together different aspects of the product. From the analysis, it is evident that alcohol advertising is popular in USA. The perspectives by Jim Fowles and Courtland Bovee present an interesting look into the core nature of im age and textual advertising and their appeals (Kotabe Helsen, 12). This paper brings out the aspect of integrated advertising quite well and vividly explains it using the case of alcohol advertising in USA. With a consumption rate of over 60%, alcohol is one of the advertised products in USA. Additionally, alcohol brings about the concept of integrated advertising quite well considering the flexible nature with which different media can be used as a tool for its advertisement. Works Cited Grube, Joel. 2012. Alcohol in the Media: Drinking Portrayals, Alcohol Advertising, and Alcohol Consumption among Youth. 2012. Kotabe, Masaki and K. Helsen. Global Marketing Management, New York: John Wiley Sons, 2004. Print. Mims, Christopher. 2012. By 2016 In North America, Mobile Advertising could be bigger than Today’s Entire Online Ad Market. 2012. Web. https://finance.yahoo.com/news/2016-north-america-mobile-advertising-184013375.html. Ulrich, Kaiser Song Minjae. â€Å"Do Media Cons umers Really Dislike Advertising? An Empirical Assessment of the Role of Advertising in Print Media Markets.† International Journal of Industrial Organization, 27.2 (2009): 292-301. Print. Young, Charles. The Advertising Handbook: Ideas in Flight, Seattle: Wiley and Sons, 2005. Print. This research paper on Integrated Advertising: America Alcohol Industry Case was written and submitted by user Mauricio U. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Digital Surveillance System

Digital Surveillance System The benefits of digital surveillance outweigh problems it posses Mass surveillance was intensified after the 2001 terrorist attack. Therefore, the main aim of this program is to contain or avert terrorism in the United States. Based on this, I believe the benefits of mass surveillance outweigh problems it posses. This paper will discuss the benefits in terms of whether or not terrorism has happened again since it was started. The paper will also consider other aspects such as right to privacy and the ease of establishment.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Digital Surveillance System specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Surveillance systems are an option that is effective option. That is, today it is not easy for anyone to get into airports, concerts, as well as public gatherings without being subjected to a number of checks (Gellman 5). Surveillance cameras when combined with other law enforcement measures are more effici ent, less intrusive, causes less and psychological disturbance. The other thing is that mass surveillance can make the lives of people more convenient, by eradicating the necessity for passwords. The mass surveillance program or system itself could be employed for identification as it uses algorithms that are adequately effective (Gellman 2). It could as well do away with long lines of travelers at airports. Mass surveillance expedites searches and it can be employed to detect items that have been outlawed than physical searches. With reduced crime as a result of mass surveillance, a significant decrease in police work would be observed. It would also reduce the number of security personnel. In fact, the only security people that will be needed are those who do rapid response in the case of a security issue. It is easier to do business in a mass surveillance society. Furthermore, enhanced security patrols would not be needed at events that take place outside. What would be done is s imply replacing them with clear signs that would easily identify people directly. One other sure thing is that, since the twin tower incident in 2001, there has not been any significant attack attributed to terrorism in the United States (Risen and Poitras 1). This success is attributed to the effectiveness of surveillance to prevent terrorism activities. The surveillance system is frequently reviewed and also subject to many safeguards. Although Snowden indicates that NSA authorizes general warrants for the whole country’s metadata, it must be understood that even though the United States can collect the metadata, the government or agencies responsible cannot sieve through it arbitrarily (Gellman 3). The government can only sift through having received an approval from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (Risen and Poitras 2). The only major demerits of this system are that of infringement of privacy rights (Gellman 4). However, it must be emphasized that constitutio nal rights are not absolute and can be limited anytime if there is a public interest that is compelling government to do so. Some of these public interests may include the deterrence of acts of terrorism.Advertising Looking for essay on homeland security? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In general, it must be acknowledged that the surveillance systems can make mistakes, although the computers or cameras are not installed to replace people but to help investigators by getting rid of information that is useless. Again, it is not about how many cases of terrorism it has prevented, but how it has helped investigators to access important information that helps them to enhance security. Whether Edward Snowden was justified or not to leak intelligent information Snowden an employee of NSA managed to access intelligence information and revealed to the general public. Since the time of release, this issue has been a subject o f heated debate in the United States (Risen and Poitras 1). This paper discusses reasons why Snowden was not justified to reveal the information. Some factors to be considered are his intentions, risks involved, and his place of work. To begin with, being a former employee of NSA he was bound to adhere and respect the oath of secrecy which he willing took (Gellman 1-2). This action represented a serious violation of the core values and code of conduct of NSA. Security matters are always sensitive and as such those who access them have a duty to the citizens and the government. The leaked information relates to operations of NSA such as the aspect of collecting data from United States phone call records in order to search for any possible connections to terrorists overseas. Also, it involved surveillance of online communications in order to detect suspicious behaviors from foreigners. Revealing these surveillance programs can easily damage to national security. Revealed information g ives terrorists who are actually trying by all means to avoid detection. Now more than ever, Americans are at risk, as the revelations shows their adversaries, what kind of capabilities they have. Even though most Americans do like their personal information taken by thirty parties, when it comes to security matters, a majority of them support the surveillance system (Risen and Poitras 2). As thing are, mass surveillance is one of the best security measures that can easily keep a trace on not only potential, but also existing threats. Other measures are highly limited in scope. The major concern by Americans was that their right to privacy as enshrined in the constitution was being violated. However, the government had already assured them that strict protocols were being followed regarding protection of their data.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Digital Surveillance System specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was u njustified as it had the potential to strain the relationship between the United States and the rest of the world. For instance, after the revelation, some foreign governments as well as groups both in Europe and Asia are not very happy with the US. That is, the European Union has laws for data protection and as such does not support mass surveillance. As a consequence, they may easily re-examine and restrict the data they have been sharing with the United States (Risen and Poitras 4). Asian partners, on the other hand, registered their displeasure with the United States and that they were concerned the data and information collected in the surveillance systems could at one point be employed against them. Most Asia countries share a lot of sensitive data particularly on election using online programs with the US. In conclusion, surveillance program has a lot of benefits than disadvantages. As it has been seen in the discussion, they help investors and security officers to keep an ey e on people who can easily harm the United States. It is not meant to replace the existing security measures but support them. In terms of disclosing intelligence information, Snowden was not justified to do so. The information released was sensitive and could be used by terrorists to escape or advance their cause against Americans. Gellman, Barton. Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations,says he accomplished his mission. The Washington Post (2013): pp. 1-5. Print. Risen, James and Laura Poitras. N.S.A. Gathers Data on Social Connections of U.S. Citizens. The New York Times (2013): pp. 1-6. Print.

Monday, March 2, 2020

German Battleship Tirpitz - World War II

German Battleship Tirpitz - World War II The Tirpitz was a German battleship used during World War II.  The British made several efforts to sink Tirpitz and finally succeeded in late 1944. Shipyard: Kriegsmarinewerft, WilhelmshavenLaid Down: November 2, 1936Launched: April 1, 1939Commissioned: February 25, 1941Fate: Sunk on November 12, 1944 Specifications Displacement: 42,900 tonsLength: 823 ft., 6 in.Beam: 118 ft. 1 in.Draft: 30 ft. 6 in.Speed: 29 knotsComplement: 2,065 men Guns 8 Ãâ€" 15 in. SK C/34 (4 Ãâ€" 2)12 Ãâ€" 5.9 in. (6 Ãâ€" 2)16 Ãâ€" 4.1 in. SK C/33 (8 Ãâ€" 2)16 Ãâ€" 1.5 in. SK C/30 (8 Ãâ€" 2)12 Ãâ€" 0.79 in. FlaK 30 (12 Ãâ€" 1) Construction Laid down at Kriegsmarinewerft, Wilhelmshaven on November 2, 1936, Tirpitz was the second and final ship of the Bismarck-class of battleship. Initially given the contract name G, the ship was later named for famed German naval leader Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz. Christened by the late admirals daughter, Tirpitz was launched April 1, 1939. Work continued on the battleship through 1940. As World War II had begun, the ships completion was delayed by British air strikes on the Wilhelmshaven shipyards. Commissioned on February 25, 1941, Tirpitz departed for its sea trials in the Baltic. Capable of 29 knots, Tirpitzs primary armament consisted of eight 15 guns mounted in four dual turrets. These were supplemented by a secondary battery of twelve 5.9 guns. In addition, it mounted a variety of light anti-aircraft guns, which were increased throughout the war. Protected by a main belt of armor that was 13 thick, Tirpitzs power was provided by three Brown, Boveri Cie geared steam turbines capable of producing over 163,000 horsepower. Entering active service with the Kriegsmarine, Tirpitz conducted extensive training exercises in the Baltic. In the Baltic Assigned to Kiel, Tirpitz was in port when Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Putting to sea, it became the flagship of Admiral Otto Ciliaxs Baltic Fleet. Cruising off the Aland Islands with the heavy cruiser, four light cruisers, and several destroyers, Ciliax endeavored to prevent a breakout of the Soviet fleet from Leningrad. When the fleet disbanded in late September, Tirpitz resumed training activities. In November, Admiral Erich Raeder, commander of the Kriegsmarine, ordered the battleship to Norway so that it could strike at Allied convoys. Arriving in Norway After a brief overhaul, Tirpitz sailed north on January 14, 1942, under the command of Captain Karl Topp. Arriving at Trondheim, the battleship soon moved to a safe anchorage at nearby Fà ¦ttenfjord. Here Tirpitz was anchored next to a cliff to aid in protecting it from air strikes. In addition, extensive anti-aircraft defenses were constructed, as well as torpedo nets and protective booms. Though efforts were made to camouflage the ship, the British were aware of its presence through decrypted Enigma radio intercepts. Having established a base in Norway, Tirpitzs operations were limited due to fuel shortages. Though Bismarck had some success in the Atlantic against HMS Hood prior to its loss in 1941, Adolf Hitler refused to allow Tirpitz to conduct a similar sortie as he did not wish to lose the battleship. By remaining operational, it served as a fleet in being and tied down British naval resources. As a result, ​Tirpitzs missions were largely limited to the North Sea and Norwegian waters. Initial operations against Allied convoys were canceled when Tirpitzs supporting destroyers were withdrawn. Putting to sea on March 5, Tirpitz sought to attack Convoys QP-8 and PQ-12. Convoy Actions Missing the former, Tirpitzs spotter aircraft located the latter. Moving to intercept, Ciliax was initially unaware that the convoy was supported by elements of Admiral John Toveys Home Fleet. Turning for home, Tirpitz was unsuccessfully attacked by British carrier planes on March 9. In late June, Tirpitz and several German warships sortied as part of Operation Rà ¶sselsprung. Intended as an attack on Convoy PQ-17, the fleet turned back after receiving reports that they had been spotted. Returning to Norway, Tirpitz anchored in Altafjord. After being shifted to Bogenfjord near Narvik, the battleship sailed for Fà ¦ttenfjord where it began an extensive overhaul in October. Concerned over the threat posed by Tirpitz, the Royal Navy attempted to attack the ship with two Chariot human torpedoes in October 1942. This effort was disrupted by heavy seas. Completing its post-overhaul trials, Tirpitz returned to active duty with Captain Hans Meyer taking command on February 21, 1943. That September, Admiral Karl Doenitz, now leading the Kriegsmarine, ordered Tirpitz and other German ships to attack the small Allied base at Spitsbergen. Relentless British Attacks Attacking on September 8, Tirpitz, in its only offensive action, provided naval gunfire support to German forces going ashore. Destroying the base, the Germans withdrew and returned to Norway. Eager to eliminate Tirpitz, the Royal Navy initiated Operation Source later that month. This involved sending ten X-Craft midget submarines to Norway. The plan called for the X-Craft to penetrate the fjord and attach mines to the battleships hull. Moving forward on September 22, two X-Craft successfully completed their mission. The mines detonated and caused extensive damage to the ship and its machinery. Though badly wounded, Tirpitz remained afloat and repairs commenced. These were completed on April 2, 1944, and sea trials were planned for the following day in Altafjord. Learning that Tirpitz was nearly operational, the Royal Navy launched Operation Tungsten on April 3. This saw eighty British carrier planes attack the battleship in two waves. Scoring fifteen bomb hits, the aircraft inflicted serious damage and widespread fires but failed to sink Tirpitz. Assessing the damage, Doenitz ordered the ship repaired though understood that, due to a lack of air cover, its usefulness would be limited. In an effort to finish the job, the Royal Navy planned several additional strikes through April and May but were prevented from flying due to poor weather. Final Demise By June 2, German repair parties had restored engine power and gunnery trials were possible at the end of the month. Returning on August 22, aircraft from British carriers launched two raids against Tirpitz but failed to score any hits. Two days later, a third strike managed two hits but inflicted little damage. As the Fleet Air Arm had been unsuccessful in eliminating Tirpitz, the mission was given to the Royal Air Force. Using Avro Lancaster heavy bombers carrying massive Tallboy bombs, No. 5 Group conducted Operation Paravane on September 15. Flying from forward bases in Russia, they succeeded in getting one hit on the battleship which severely damaged its bow as well as injured other equipment on board. British bombers returned on October 29 but managed only near misses which damaged the ships port rudder. To protect Tirpitz, a sandbank was built around the ship to prevent capsizing and torpedo nets were put in place. On November 12, Lancasters dropped 29 Tallboys on the anchorage, scoring two hits and several near misses. Those that missed destroyed the sandbank. While one Tallboy penetrated forward, it failed to explode. The other struck amidships and blew out part of the ships bottom and side. Listing severely, Tirpitz was soon rocked by a massive explosion as one of its magazines detonated. Rolling, the stricken ship capsized. In the attack, the crew suffered around 1,000 casualties. The wreck of Tirpitz remained in place for the remainder of the war and was later salvaged between 1948 and 1957. Selected Sources Tirpitz HistoryBBC: Tirpitz

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Contract Creation and Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Contract Creation and Management - Essay Example It also shows how serious the leasing contract is being broken. The executives of Quick Takes video are extremely much surprised on learning of the news of the lawsuit. They argue that the contract was not viable since they did not sign it as they are the owners of the company and that they had not authorized Janet, the secretary to sign any contract that was binding them with Non-Linear Pro in the leasing of the equipment. The Quick Takes Videos’ attorney argues that Janet was acting as an agent to the company, and thus the argument cannot work since an agent is permitted to conduct business on behalf of the principal who was away during that time. The executives also try to argue that Non-Linear Pro brought faulty junk equipment and hurriedly gave the secretary the contract to sign. Janet said that she signed the contract because she taught it was a delivery. The equipment that was brought was to be on a trial basis for a month, and then they would sign the lease. That was s upposed to be the agreement that was made by the Quick Takes Video executives and Non-Linear Pro. ... This shows how the Non linear Pro is misrepresenting its equipment and its product in general. The other issue is that the secretary of Quick Takes Video, Janet acted on behalf of the company’s executives in the level of an agent and signed the lease by mistake thinking it was a delivery paper that she signs all the time. She did not take her time to read what was in the paper before signing it. This in turn, is souring up the two company’s relationship and it is making it worse. One of Quick Takes Video executive Hal says that piece of equipment that was supplied by Non Linear was a piece of junk and that the equipment that was brought was supposed to be one month trial equipment and not the real lease. Administering of Contracts In this case, the executives of the Quick Takes Video did not define to Janet on who was responsible to signing off some specific contracts in the company. During creation of contracts and managing them, business owners are supposed to define to their employees on who is responsible for signing contracts that bind the company to legal terms. Quick Take Video should define to Janet on what her authority in the company actually is. She should be told on what contracts she is responsible for signing and which contracts are her natures of signing. In the video, the executive of Quick Takes is to blame since they directed the Non Linear Pro to finish all the arrangements with Janet. They did not however, limit the sales person that specific contractual signing was to be made by the executives alone. This is where the problem arose from. The Non Linear Pro sales person might have thought that Janet had the authority to sign off these contracts. On looking at both companies allegations against each other, they both have strong cases against